Sep 15, 2012

Java :: calculating approximate sunset and sunrise

Here's a class for calculating an approximate time of the sunset, sunrise and day length on a given date, on a given location (latitude coordinate). It takes into account leap years and daylight saving time offset.
It's accurate to about 20 minutes (compared to results from WolframAlpha).

Also, because the constructor Date(int year, int month, int day) is marked as deprecated, GregorianCalendar class is used instead.

View the project on GitHub.


import java.util.*;

/*
 * Calculate sunset and sunrise on a given day on a given location
 * 
 * GPL, MIT License
 * 2012, ┼Żan Kafol, Ana Grum
 */

public class Analemma {
 // Maximum axial tilt is 23°26'15"
 public static double MAX_DECLINATION = 23 + 26/60 + 15/3600;
 
 /*
  * Test - print out sunset for all days in this year
  */
 public static void main(String[] args) {
  Calendar calendar = Calendar.getInstance();
  
  // our chosen latitude coordinate
  double latitude = 45.772792;
  
  // for each month
  for (int m = 0; m < 12; m++) {
   calendar.set(Calendar.MONTH, m);
   
   // for each day in that month
   for (int d = 1; d <= calendar.getActualMaximum(Calendar.DAY_OF_MONTH); d++) {
    
    System.out.println(sunset(latitude, calendar.get(Calendar.YEAR), m, d));
   }
  }
 }
 
 /*
  * Returns a Date object representing the time and date of the sunset for
  * the given parameters. The formula takes into account the daylight saving
  * time offset.
  * 
  * @param double latitude coordinate for calculating the sunset
  * @param int  the year for calculating the sunset
  * @param int  the month (0..January, 1..February, ...) for calculating the sunset
  * @param int  the day of month for calculating the sunset
  * @return   the time and date of the sunset
  * @see    dayLength
  */
 public static Date sunset(double latitude, int year, int month, int day) {
  double dayLength = dayLength(latitude, year, month, day);
  double hour = 12 + dayLength / 2 + daylightSaving(year, month, day);
  
  return getDate(year, month, day, hour);
 }
 
 /*
  * Returns a Date object representing the time and date of the sunrise for
  * the given parameters. The formula takes into account the daylight saving
  * time offset.
  * 
  * @param double latitude coordinate for calculating the sunrise
  * @param int  the year for calculating the sunrise
  * @param int  the month (0..January, 1..February, ...) for calculating the sunrise
  * @param int  the day of month for calculating the sunrise
  * @return   the time and date of the sunrise
  * @see    dayLength
  */
 public static Date sunrise(double latitude, int year, int month, int day) {
  double dayLength = dayLength(latitude, year, month, day);
  double hour = 12 - dayLength / 2 + daylightSaving(year, month, day);
  
  return getDate(year, month, day, hour);
 }
 
 /*
  * Returns the length of a day for the given parameters in hours. The
  * formula takes into account leap years.
  * 
  * @param double latitude coordinate for calculating the length of the day
  * @param int  the year for calculating the length of the day
  * @param int  the month (0..January, 1..February, ...) for calculating the length of the day
  * @param int  the day of month for calculating the length of the day
  * @return   the day length in fractional hours
  * @see    GregorianCalendar
  */
 public static double dayLength(double latitude, int year, int month, int day) {
  // Define the cardinal dates
  GregorianCalendar 
   today   = new GregorianCalendar(year,  month,    day), 
   prevWinter  = new GregorianCalendar(year - 1, Calendar.DECEMBER, 21), 
   nextSpting  = new GregorianCalendar(year + 1, Calendar.MARCH,  21), 
   springStart  = new GregorianCalendar(year,  Calendar.MARCH,  21), 
   summerStart  = new GregorianCalendar(year,  Calendar.JUNE,  21), 
   autumnStart  = new GregorianCalendar(year,  Calendar.SEPTEMBER, 23), 
   winterStart  = new GregorianCalendar(year,  Calendar.DECEMBER, 21);
  
  int  season;   // number of days in the season of the date
  int  cardinal;  // number of days passed since the start of the season
  
  boolean isWinter = false;
  boolean isAutumn = false;
  
  if (today.after(prevWinter) && today.before(springStart)) {
   season = daysBetween(prevWinter, springStart);
   cardinal = daysBetween(today, prevWinter);
   isWinter = true;
  } else if (today.equals(springStart) || today.after(springStart) && today.before(summerStart)) {
   season = daysBetween(springStart, summerStart);
   cardinal = daysBetween(today, springStart);
  } else if (today.equals(summerStart) || today.after(summerStart) && today.before(autumnStart)) {
   season = daysBetween(summerStart, autumnStart);
   cardinal = daysBetween(today, summerStart);
  } else if (today.equals(autumnStart) || today.after(autumnStart) && today.before(winterStart)) {
   season = daysBetween(autumnStart, winterStart);
   cardinal = daysBetween(today, autumnStart);
   isAutumn = true;
  } else {
   season = daysBetween(winterStart, nextSpting);
   cardinal = daysBetween(today, winterStart);
   isWinter = true;
  }
  
  // Calculate the Sun's declination
  double declination = (cardinal * MAX_DECLINATION / season);
  
  // During a solstice, the maximum axial tilt to the Sun is 23°26'15"
  // During an equinox, the axial tilt to the Sun is 0°
  if (today.after(summerStart) && today.before(autumnStart) || today.before(springStart) || today.after(winterStart)) {
   declination = MAX_DECLINATION - declination;
  }
  
  // Summer and winter solstice
  if (declination == 0 && !(today.equals(springStart) || today.equals(autumnStart))) {
   declination = MAX_DECLINATION;
  }
  
  // Use a negative declination between the summer's and next winter solstice
  if (isWinter || isAutumn) {
   declination *= -1;
  }
  
  // Calculate the day lenght from latitude and declination
  double cos_t = -Math.tan(Math.toRadians(latitude)) * Math.tan(Math.toRadians(declination));
  double t = Math.toDegrees(Math.acos(cos_t));
  double dayLength = 2 * t * 24 / 360;
  
  return dayLength;
 }

 /*
  * Returns the number of days passed between two dates
  * 
  * @param GregorianCalendar first date
  * @param GregorianCalendar  second date
  * @return      days passed
  * @see       GregorianCalendar
  */
 public static int daysBetween(GregorianCalendar d1, GregorianCalendar d2) {
  double millis = Math.abs(d1.getTimeInMillis() - d2.getTimeInMillis());
  return (int) (millis / (1000 * 3600 * 24));
 }
 
 /*
  * Returns 1 if the date is in daylight time or 0 if not
  * 
  * @param int  year of the date
  * @param int  month of the date
  * @param int  day of the month of the date
  * @return   1 for true, 0 for false
  * @see    TimeZone
  */
 public static int daylightSaving(int year, int month, int day) {
  return TimeZone.getDefault().inDaylightTime(getDate(year, month, day, 12, 0)) ? 1 : 0;
 }

 /*
  * Returns the Date object. This method is used as a replacement for the
  * deprecated constructor Date(year, month, day)
  * 
  * @param int  year of the date
  * @param int  month of the date
  * @param int  day of the month of the date
  * @return   the Date object for the given parameters
  * @see    Date
  */
 public static Date getDate(int year, int month, int day) {
  return new Date(new GregorianCalendar(year, month, day).getTimeInMillis());
 }
 
 /*
  * Returns the Date object. This method is used as a replacement for the
  * deprecated constructor Date(year, month, day, hour, minute)
  * 
  * @param int  year of the date
  * @param int  month of the date
  * @param int  day of the month of the date
  * @param  int  hour of day
  * @param  int  minute of hour
  * @return   the Date object for the given parameters
  * @see    Date
  */
 public static Date getDate(int year, int month, int day, int hour, int min) {
  return new Date(new GregorianCalendar(year, month, day, hour, min).getTimeInMillis());
 }
 
 /*
  * Returns the Date object. This method is used as a replacement for the
  * deprecated constructor Date(year, month, day, hour, minute, second)
  * 
  * @param int  year of the date
  * @param int  month of the date
  * @param int  day of the month of the date
  * @param  int  hour of day as double
  * @return   the Date object for the given parameters
  * @see    Date
  */
 public static Date getDate(int year, int month, int day, double hour) {
  double min = (hour - Math.floor(hour)) * 60;
  double sec = (min - Math.floor(min)) * 60;
  return new Date(new GregorianCalendar(year, month, day, (int) hour, (int) min, (int) sec).getTimeInMillis());
 }
}